Bernadotte. Un maréchal d’Empire sur le trône de Suède PDF

Branche aînée française de la famille Bernadotte, éteinte en 1966. Pour les articles sur bernadotte. Un maréchal d’Empire sur le trône de Suède PDF personnes portant ce prénom, consulter la liste générée automatiquement.


 » Personne n’a fourni une carrière semblable à la mienne « , affirmait Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte en préambule de son testament. Né en 1763, petit-fils de tailleur, fils d’un modeste avoué, engagé volontaire dans l’armée royale à l’âge de dix-sept ans, sous-officier sous l’Ancien Régime, il sortit de sa condition sociale à la faveur des guerres de la Révolution et de l’Empire. Général dans la célèbre armée de Sambre-et-Meuse, puis dans l’armée d’Italie, ambassadeur à Vienne, ministre de la Guerre sous le Directoire, il fut lié au clan Bonaparte après son mariage avec Désirée Clary, belle-soeur de Joseph et ancienne fiancée de Napoléon. Malgré ses relations souvent tendues avec celui-ci, il fut promu maréchal d’Empire en 1804 et nommé prince de Ponte-Corvo en 1806. En disgrâce après la bataille de Wagram, son élection comme prince royal de Suède en 1810 changea le cours de sa destinée. Devenu suédois, il combattit contre la France en 1813-1814. En 1818 il devint roi de Suède sous le nom de Charles XIV Jean et roi de Norvège sous celui de Charles III Jean. Sa fantastique ascension n’est pas dépourvue d’ambiguïtés et a suscité de multiples débats depuis deux cents ans. En France, il devint dès 1812 le traître, le Judas et on oublia que l’Empereur n’était pas exempt de reproches dans sa défection. En Suède, sa patrie d’adoption, le portrait fut plus flatteur car son règne ouvrit une ère de stabilité et d’expansion et permit l’implantation d’une dynastie régnant encore aujourd’hui. En Norvège, sa patrie  » d’annexion  » – ce royaume entra en union personnelle avec la couronne suédoise en 1814 -, les avis furent partagés entre admiration et reproches, les uns faisant valoir les bienfaits de la pacification et de l’essor économique intervenus durant son règne, les autres insistant sur le conservatisme d’un monarque vieillissant. Qui fut donc Bernadotte ? Un héros ou un traître ? Un ami sincère ou un calculateur ambitieux ? Un libéral convaincu et un administrateur intègre devenu en Suède un  » monarque républicain  » ou un dynaste ambitieux ?

Rechercher les pages comportant ce texte. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 26 décembre 2016 à 10:13. Jump to navigation Jump to search « Carl Johan » redirects here. He was born Jean Bernadotte in France and served a long career in the French Army. He was appointed as a Marshal of France by Napoleon, though the two had a turbulent relationship. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a local attorney.

However, the death of his father when Bernadotte was just 17 stopped the youth from following his father’s career. La Marine on 3 September 1780, and first served in the newly conquered territory of Corsica. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. By 1794 he was promoted to brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. At the beginning of 1797 he was ordered by the Directory to march with 20,000 men as reinforcements to Napoleon Bonaparte’s army in Italy.

He had his first interview with Napoleon in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division. After the treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France. After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris. He married Désirée Clary in August 1798, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant and Joseph Bonaparte’s sister-in-law. He declined to help Napoleon Bonaparte stage his coup d’état of November 1799 but nevertheless accepted employment from the Consulate, and from April 1800 to 18 August 1801 commanded the army in the Vendée and successfully restored its tranquility. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed that Bernadotte head to New France to serve as governor of Louisiana, which was to be transferred back to French control following the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. In accepting the position, Bernadotte requested additional soldiers, settlers, and funding to support the colony, but Napoleon refused.

Bernadotte, as Marshal of the French Empire. On the introduction of the First French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the eighteen Marshals of the Empire, and from June 1804 to September 1805 served as governor of the recently occupied Hanover. During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte—with an army corps from Hanover—co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting off of Mack in the Battle of Ulm. Someday the Gascon will get caught. Being recalled to Germany to assist in the new war between France and Austria, he received the command of the 9th Corps, which was mainly composed of Saxons.

French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp with the National Guard. In 1810 Bernadotte was about to enter his new post as governor of Rome when he was unexpectedly elected the heir-presumptive to King Charles XIII of Sweden. Bernadotte was elected partly because a large part of the Swedish Army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because he was also personally popular, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners in Lübeck. Before freeing Bernadotte from his allegiance to France, Napoleon asked him to agree never to take up arms against France. I have beheld war near at hand, and I know all its evils: for it is not conquest which can console a country for the blood of her children, spilt on a foreign land.

I have seen the mighty Emperor of the French, so often crowned with the laurel of victory, surrounded by his invincible armies, sigh after the olive-branches of peace. Charles John, address to the State-General, 5 November 1810. The new Crown Prince was very soon the most popular and most powerful man in Sweden and quickly impressed his adoptive father. My dear Suremain, I have gambled heavily, and I believe that after all I have won. The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. The keynote of his whole policy was the acquisition of Norway as a compensation for the loss of Finland and Bernadotte proved anything but a puppet of France. Sweden would have to face the determination of France, Denmark and Russia.

This demand would mean a hard blow to the national economy and the Swedish population. In January 1812, French troops suddenly invaded Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen. The decisive reason was that Napoleon, before marching to Moscow, had to secure his rear and dared not trust a Swedish continental foothold behind him. In 1813, he allied Sweden with Napoleon’s enemies, including Great Britain, Russia and Prussia, in the Sixth Coalition, hoping to secure Norway.

However, the Norwegians were unwilling to accept Swedish control. They declared independence, adopted a liberal constitution and elected Danish crown prince Christian Frederick to the throne. During the period of the Allied invasion of France in the winter and spring of 1814, when it was unclear who would rule France after the war, the Russian Tsar Alexander I flirted with the idea of installing Charles John on the French throne in place of Napoleon. Charles John had been regent and de facto head of state upon his arrival, and took an increasing role in government from 1812 onward, with Charles XIII reduced to a mute witness in government councils. Upon Charles’ death on 5 February 1818, Charles John ascended as the union King, reigning as Charles XIV John in Sweden and Charles III John in Norway. He was initially popular in both countries.