Ithaque PDF

Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the group of islands west of Greece. They are traditionally called the Heptanese, i. As a distinct historic region they date to the centuries-long Venetian rule, which preserved them from becoming part of the Ottoman Empire, and created a distinct cultural identity with many Italian influences. Ithaque PDF Ionian Islands became part of the modern Greek state in 1864.

Après vingt ans d absence, Ulysse est de retour dans sa patrie, fatigué de ses errances. Pallas Athéna en personne l éclaire sur la situation dans laquelle se trouve son royaume. D innombrables prétendants se sont installés dans le palais et demandent la main de Pénélope, tout en corrompant les m urs et faisant comme si le roi était mort depuis longtemps. Lorsque Botho Strauss revisite le mythe d Ulysse, celui-ci nous apparaît sous un jour nouveau. Cette pièce, contemporaine à tous égards, offre un réseau de questionnements : comment sortir d un conflit ? Qu est-ce qu un héros ? De quelle manière revenir au pouvoir après des années d absence ? Et surtout, comment remettre de l ordre dans une situation chaotique ? Botho Strauss, par le choix de ses sujet et son style, a marqué le théâtre des dernières décennies. En 1989, il reçoit le prix Georg-Büchner, la plus haute distinction littéraire en Allemagne, pour être « parvenu à transposer sur scène la vie désorientée de notre société ».

The six northern islands are off the west coast of Greece, in the Ionian Sea. The seventh island, Kythira, is off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, the southern part of the Greek mainland. Epirus and Italy in which the Ionian Islands are found because Io swam across it. In English, the adjective relating to Ionia is Ionic, not Ionian. The islands themselves are known by a rather confusing variety of names. A variety of spellings are used for the Greek names of the islands, particularly in historical writing. The islands were settled by Greeks at an early date, possibly as early as 1200 BC, and certainly by the 9th century BC.

The early Eretrian settlement at Kerkyra was displaced by colonists from Corinth in 734 BC. The islands were mostly a backwater during Ancient Greek times and played little part in Greek politics. Ithaca was the name of the island home of Odysseus in the epic Ancient Greek poem the Odyssey by Homer. Attempts have been made to identify Ithaki with ancient Ithaca, but the geography of the real island cannot be made to fit Homer’s description. By the 4th century BC, most of the islands were absorbed into the empire of Macedon. Some remained under the control of the Macedonian Kingdom until 146 BC, when the Greek peninsula was gradually annexed by Rome. After 400 years of peaceful Roman rule, the islands passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.

Under Byzantine rule, from the mid-8th century, they formed the theme of Cephallenia. The islands were a frequent target of Saracen raids and from the late 11th century, saw a number of Norman and Italian attacks. Kefallonia and Zakynthos became the County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos until 1357, when this entity was merged with Lefkada and Ithaki to become the Duchy of Leucadia under French and Italian dukes. Mark, symbol of the Venetian Republic, at the New Fortress of Corfu, the longest-held of Venice’s overseas possessions. From 1204, the Republic of Venice controlled Corfu and slowly all the Ionian islands fell under Venetian rule. In the 15th century, the Ottomans conquered most of Greece, but their attempts to conquer the islands were largely unsuccessful.

Zakynthos passed permanently to Venice in 1482, Kefallonia and Ithaki in 1483, Lefkada in 1502. The islands thus became the only part of the Greek-speaking world to escape Ottoman rule, which gave them both a unity and an importance in Greek history they would otherwise not have had. Corfu was the only Greek island never conquered by the Turks. Roman Catholicism, but the majority remained Greek ethnically, linguistically, and religiously. In the 18th century, a Greek national independence movement began to emerge, and the free status of the Ionian islands made them the natural base for exiled Greek intellectuals, freedom fighters and foreign sympathisers. The islands became more self-consciously Greek as the 19th century, the century of romantic nationalism, neared.

Ioannis Kapodistrias from Corfu island, first governor of the modern Greek state. In 1797 Napoléon Bonaparte conquered Venice. Kefallonia, Kythera and Zakynthos, and took Lefkada in 1810. The French held out in Corfu until 1814. Once Greek independence was established after 1830, however, the islanders began to resent foreign colonial rule by the British, and to press for Enosis, i. The British statesman William Ewart Gladstone toured the islands and recommended that having already Malta, giving the islands to Greece wouldn’t hurt the interest of the British Empire. In 1862, Britain decided to transfer the islands to Greece, as a gesture of support intended to bolster the new king’s popularity.

On May 2, 1864, the British departed and the islands became three provinces of the Kingdom of Greece though Britain retained the use of the port of Corfu. On 21 May 1864 the Ionian Islands officially reunited with Greece. In 1943, the Germans replaced the Italians, and deported the centuries-old Jewish community of Corfu to their deaths. The 1953 Ionian islands earthquake occurred with a surface wave magnitude of 7.

Building damage was extensive and the southern islands of Kefalonia and Zakynthos were practically levelled. The islands were reconstructed from the ground up over the following years under a strict building code. The code has proven extremely effective, as many earthquakes since that time have caused no damage to new buildings. Kythera, which is part of the region of Attica.

In recent decades, the islands have lost much of their population through emigration and the decline of their traditional industries, fishing and marginal agriculture. Today, their major industry is tourism. Specifically Kerkyra, with its harbour, scenery and wealth of ruins and castles, is a favourite stopping place for cruise liners. The Ionian Islands’ official population, excluding Cythera, in 2011 was 207,855, decreased by 1. Nevertheless, the region remains the third by population density with 90. Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos.